Command Line Usage

This chapter describes how to use Radish from the command line. All it’s commands, options and arguments.

Run - Specify Feature files

All arguments which do not belong to any command line option are interpreted as Feature files or Feature file locations. If the argument is a directory all files ending with .feature will be run. It’s possible to mix files and directories:

radish SomeFeature.feature myfeatures/

Run - Specify base directory

Radish searches for and imports Step and Terrain python files in the base directories which by default is set to the radish folder inside the current working directory (a.k.a $PWD/radish). To specify an alternate path you may use the -b or --basedir command line option:

radish -b tests/radish SomeFeature.feature
radish --basedir tests/radish SomeFeature.feature

Since version v0.4.2 you can specify -b multiple times to import Python modules containing steps and terrain functions from multiple locations:

radish -b tests/radish -b custom/radish SomeFeature.feature

Run - Early exit

By default Radish will try to run all specified Scenarios even if there are failed Scenarios during the run. If you want to abort the test run after the first error occurred you can use the -e or --early-exit option:

radish SomeFeature.feature -e
radish SomeFeature.feature --early-exit

Run - Debug Steps

Radish provides the ability to debug each step using a debugger. You can enable that using --debug-steps command line option.

radish --debug-steps SomeFeature.feature

The IPython debugger is used if present. If it isn’t the standard Python debugger is used instead. Please consult the official debugger documentation for the common debugger workflow and commands.

For example you can list the variables available by printing locals().

ipdb> locals()
{'step': <radish.stepmodel.Step object at 0x7f4d5b6ca400>}

As you can see, when a failure happens inside the Step you can see the step arguments such as step.

Run - Show traceback on failure

Radish can display a complete traceback in case a Step fails. You can use the -t or --with-traceback command line option for that:

radish SomeFeature.feature -t
radish SomeFeature.feature --with-traceback

Run - Use custom marker to uniquely identify test run

Radish supports marker functionality which is used to uniquely identify a specific test run. By default the marker is set to the number of seconds from the epoch (01/01/1970). You can specify your own marker using the -m or --marker command line option.

The marker is also displayed in the summary of a test run:

radish SomeFeature.feature -m "My Marker"
radish SomeFeature.feature --marker "My Marker"

... radish output

Run My Marker finished within 0:0.001272 minutes

The marker is also passed into all the hooks defined in the terrain files. To see example code please consult terrain.

Run - Profile

Radish allows you to pass custom data to a Terrain hook code or to the Step implementations using the -p or --profile command line option. This can be used to customize your test runs as needed.

The value specified to the -p / --profile command line option is made available in world.config.profile. Please see World for for an example.

A common usage of profile s setting it to some environment value such as stage or production.

radish SomeFeature.feature -p stage
radish SomeFeature.feature --profile stage

Note: -p / --profile is being deprecated and will be removed in a future version of Radish. Please use -u / --user-data instead. See Arbitrary User Data for details.

Run - Dry run

Radish allows you to pass custom flags to a Terrain hook code or to Step implementations using the -d or --dry-run command line option. This can be used to customize your test runs as needed.

The -d / --dry-run command line switch is made available in world.config.dry_run which is set to True. Please see World for an example.

radish SomeFeature.feature -d
radish SomeFeature.feature --dry-run

Run - Specifying Scenarios by id

Radish can also runs specific scenarios by id using the -s or --scenarios command line option. The ids are scenarios indexed by the parsing order. The first Scenario in the first Feature will have the id 1, the second scenario the id 2. The Scenario ids are unique within all Features from this run. The value can be a single Scenario id or a comma separated list of Scenario ids:

You can use --write-ids command line switch to print Scenario ids. Please consult Run - Writing out Scenario and Step ids

radish SomeFeature.feature -s 1
radish SomeFeature.feature --scenarios 1,2,5,6

Run - Shuffle Scenarios

Radish can also shuffle the Scenarios by using the --shuffle command line option. This is useful when you are trying to detect if any Scenario has unintended side effects on other Scenarios.

radish SomeFeature.feature --shuffle

Run - Specify certain Features and/or Scenarios by tags

Radish is able to run only a selection of certain Features and/or Scenarios using the --tags command line option. You can specify the tags of Features/Scenarios which should be run. The command line option value has to be a valid tag expression. Radish uses tag-expressions. The following are some valid tag expressions:

radish SomeFeature.feature --tags 'regression'
radish SomeFeature.feature --tags 'good_case and in_progress'
radish SomeFeature.feature --tags 'good_case'
radish SomeFeature.feature --tags 'regression and good_case and not real_hardware'
radish SomeFeature.feature --tags 'database or filesystem and bad_case'

Be aware that Scenarios inherit the tags from the Feature they are defined it.

To learn how to tag Features and Scenarios please refer to Tags section.

Run - Write BDD XML result file

Radish can report it’s test run results to a XML file after a test run using the --bdd-xml command line switch. The command line option value must be a file path where the XML file should be written to.

To write the XML file lxml is required. Install it with:

pip install radish-bdd[bddxml]
radish SomeFeature.feature --bdd-xml /tmp/result.xml

To understand the format BDD XML consult: BDD XML Report.

Run - Code Coverage

Radish can use the coverage package to measure code coverage of the code run during the tests using the --with-coverage command line option. You can also limit which packages it generates metrics for by providing file paths or package names using --cover-packages. The --cover-packages command line option is the --source command line switch used by coverage. See coverage documention

To use the code coverage feature you have to install the necessary extra dependencies with:

pip install radish-bdd[coverage]

The following options are also available to configure the coverage measurement and report:

–with-coverage:
 enables the coverage measurement
–cover-packages:
 specify one or more packages to measure. Multiple package names have to be separated with a comma.
–cover-append:append the coverage data to previously measured data.
–cover-config-file:
 specify a custom coverage config file. By default the $PWD.coveragerc file is read if it exists.
–cover-branches:
 include branch coverage into the measurement
–cover-erase:erase all previously collected coverage data
–cover-min-percentage:
 let the radish run file if the given coverage percentage is not reached
–cover-html:generate an HTML coverage report
–cover-xml:generate a XML coverage report

Run - Write Cucumber JSON file

Radish can report it’s test run results to a Cucumber style JSON file after a test run using the --cucumber-json command line option. The command line option value must be a file path where the JSON file should be written to.

radish SomeFeature.feature --cucumber-json /tmp/result.json

Documentation describing the format of the Cucumber JSON file can be found here: https://www.relishapp.com/cucumber/cucumber/docs/formatters/json-output-formatter

Run - Log all features, scenarios, and steps to syslog

Radish provides the –syslog command line option which can be used to log all of your features, scenarios, and steps to the syslog. The caveat here is this option is only supported on systems where the Python standard library supports the system logger (syslog). This command line option works well in UNIX and UNIX-like systems (Linux) but will not work on Windows machines.

This can be especially useful for consolidating all of your logging data in one central repository.

radish SomeFeature.feature --syslog

If you are unfamiliar with the syslog feature, please consult the official syslog documentation.

Run - Debug code after failure

Radish debugging mechanisms include the ability to drop into either IPython debugger or the Python debugger on code failures using the --debug-after-failure command line option. Using IPython is preferred over the standard Python debugger.

If you are unfamiliar with the Python debugger please consult the official debugger documentation.

radish SomeFeature.feature --debug-after-failure

Please consult Run - Debug Steps for debugging tips.

Run - Inspect code after failure

Radish debugging mechanisms include the ability to drop into a IPython shell upon code failures using the --inspect-after-failure command line option.

To inspect code with IPython install the necessary extra dependencies with:

pip install radish-bdd[ipython-debugger]
radish SomeFeature.feature --inspect-after-failure

Please consult Run - Debug Steps for debugging tips.

Run - Printing results to console

Note: Pending state means “yet to be executed”.

The Radish console output is aimed to be powerful and explicit. It uses ANSI color codes and line ‘overwriting’ to format and color the output to make it more user friendly.

The anatomy of the console output is a follows:

Executing Scenario Step sentences as well as entries in the Scenario Outline Example and Scenario Loop tables are printed to the console first, colored in bold yellow.

As the Scenario Steps, Scenario Outline Example entries and Scenario Loop iterations have finished the execution the “ANSI line jump” is used to replace the printed yellow lines with the outcome of the Step run which is colored in bold green on success or bold red in case of failure.

Exception messages and tracebacks are printed upon failure below the failed Step, Scenario Outline Example or Scenario Loop Iteration entry.

Radish provides several command line options to help you with console output format.

A common use of Radish is to run it using a script or in a continuous integration setup. Such setups usually do not support “ANSI” color codes or line jumps. This is where the combined use of --no-ansi and --write-steps-once command line options become handy.

The --no-ansi turns off every “ANSI” code which might make the output less readable in a non ANSI ready environment -> like Windows or when redirecting the output to a file. However, since doing that also disables line jumping the step runs will be printed twice to the screen (first print is the executing step, the second is the finished one). Without colors that double print is confusing and can be turned off using --write-steps-once.

radish SomeFeature.feature --no-ansi
radish SomeFeature.feature --no-ansi --write-steps-once

The --no-line-jump command line option disables the “overwriting” of the yellow executing lines by the success or failure lines. This is helpful when reviewing and debugging as it shows Steps first executing then finished. It also allows for “print to console” style debugging to be used without ANSI codes destroying them.

radish SomeFeature.feature --no-line-jump

Run - Writing out Scenario and Step ids

Radish provides the –write-ids command line option which can be used to enumerate Scenarios and Steps.

This can be useful for bug reporting.

1. Scenario: Apple Blender
    1. Given I put couple of "apples" in a blender
    2. When I switch the blender on
    3. Then it should transform into "apple juice"

2. Scenario: Pear Blender
    1. Given I put couple of "pears" in a blender
    2. When I switch the blender on
    3. Then it should transform into "pear juice"

It can also be useful when using the -s / --scenarios command line option since the Scenarios are numbered in the run order.

Run - Specifying Arbitrary User Data on the command-line

Radish allows you to specify arbitrary user data on the command-line as key=value pairs. You can access the user data from your tests by accessing the world.config.user_data dictionary.

Note: All keys/values are treated as strings. If you specify the same key more than once, the last occurrence of the key will replace previous occurrences.

radish SomeFeature.feature --user-data="my_key=1" --user-data="my_key2=my_value2" -u "my-key3=value3"

Show - Expand feature

Radish Precondition decorated Scenarios are powerful but can be confusing to read on the screen. For that Radish provides --expand command line option to expand all the preconditions.

radish show SomeFeature.feature --expand

Help Screen

Use the --help or -h option to show the following help screen:

Usage:
    radish show <features>
           [--expand]
           [--no-ansi]
    radish <features>...
           [-b=<basedir> | --basedir=<basedir>...]
           [-e | --early-exit]
           [--debug-steps]
           [-t | --with-traceback]
           [-m=<marker> | --marker=<marker>]
           [-p=<profile> | --profile=<profile>]
           [-d | --dry-run]
           [-s=<scenarios> | --scenarios=<scenarios>]
           [--shuffle]
           [--tags=<tags>]
           [--bdd-xml=<bddxml>]
           [--with-coverage]
           [--cover-packages=<cover_packages>]
           [--cover-append]
           [--cover-config-file=<cover_config_file>]
           [--cover-branches]
           [--cover-erase]
           [--cover-min-percentage=<cover_min_percentage>]
           [--cover-html=<cover_html_dir>]
           [--cover-xml=<cover_xml_file>]
           [--no-ansi]
           [--no-line-jump]
           [--write-steps-once]
           [--write-ids]
           [--cucumber-json=<ccjson>]
           [--debug-after-failure]
           [--inspect-after-failure]
           [--syslog]
           [-u=<userdata> | --user-data=<userdata>...]
    radish (-h | --help)
    radish (-v | --version)

Arguments:
    features                                    feature files to run

Options:
    -h --help                                   show this screen
    -v --version                                show version
    -e --early-exit                             stop the run after the first failed step
    --debug-steps                               debugs each step
    -t --with-traceback                         show the Exception traceback when a step fails
    -m=<marker> --marker=<marker>               specify the marker for this run [default: time.time()]
    -p=<profile> --profile=<profile>            specify the profile which can be used in the step/hook implementation
    -b=<basedir> --basedir=<basedir>...         set base dir from where the step.py and terrain.py will be loaded. [default: $PWD/radish]
                                                You can specify -b|--basedir multiple times. All files will be imported.
    -d --dry-run                                make dry run for the given feature files
    -s=<scenarios> --scenarios=<scenarios>      only run the specified scenarios (comma separated list)
    --shuffle                                   shuttle run order of features and scenarios
    --tags=<feature_tags>                       only run Scenarios with the given tags
    --expand                                    expand the feature file (all preconditions)
    --bdd-xml=<bddxml>                          write BDD XML result file after run
    --with-coverage                             enable code coverage
    --cover-packages=<cover_packages>           specify source code package
    --cover-append                              append coverage data to previous collected data
    --cover-config-file=<cover_config_file>     specify coverage config file [default: .coveragerc]
    --cover-branches                            include branch coverage in report
    --cover-erase                               erase previously collected coverage data
    --cover-min-percentage=<cover_min_percentage> fail if the given minimum coverage percentage is not reached
    --cover-html=<cover_html_dir>               specify a directory where to store HTML coverage report
    --cover-xml=<cover_xml_file>                specify a file where to store XML coverage report
    --no-ansi                                   print features without any ANSI sequences (like colors, line jump)
    --no-line-jump                              print features without line jumps (overwriting steps)
    --write-steps-once                          does not rewrite the steps (this option only makes sense in combination with the --no-ansi flag)
    --write-ids                                 write the feature, scenario and step id before the sentences
    --cucumber-json=<ccjson>                    write cucumber json result file after run
    --debug-after-failure                       start python debugger after failure
    --inspect-after-failure                     start python shell after failure
    --syslog                                    log all of your features, scenarios, and steps to the syslog
    -u=<userdata> | --user-data=<userdata>...   User data as 'key=value' pair. You can specify --user-data multiple times.